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in five parts

Notes for the generation betrayed's history
and for a new writing of after war's history

June 2 - 1946.................. April 18 - 1948


These two dates mark the start and the end of democracy in Italy. During that time it was realized the betrayal against the generation who conquered such a democracy by Resistance's sacrifices and blood. My narrative poems want to honour such a generation not only for the important historical fact whose ita was protagonist but particularly for the moral reflection whose all the people were obliged to keep conscience.
It is necessary don't forget that italians identity was created in the Modern Age by three glorious historical facts :Renaissance- Risorgimento- Resistance.
Only who recognizes in himself this identity, can find his origins, as well as all Europeans, in the ancient greek and Roman civilizations. It isn't a case that Vulgar Age begins by divulgation (by that "vulgar") of "lex romana" to all the people of Empire by August's order. The others shall wander in the "Ades", as Saphos said, without name and face, repudiated by History.
Now I would wish that my 150 thousand students, that up today have honoured my web-site, reflect on the personages of "generation betrayed". They are all real personages, made of flesh and blood, all witness, as I myself, of our age. By their testimony, they impose a new writing of after-war's history, that not only isn't ended but that shall continue eternal in the memory of all future generations.
Because no generation can never to be betrayed.
After that we can put tha basis for such a new writing presenting the facts incontestables which have determined the democracy's fall.


The generation who struggled with courage and suffering, who had heros and martyrs for estabilishing democracy in Italy, was called "the generation betrayed" because, immediately, during less than two years, saw to dissolve its dream.
April 18, '48 was greeted by catholics as the victory, a real triumph, of freedom against the incombent danger of a communist dictatorship.
In such an expression there are two historical falsehoods whose we give the proofs.
That date sanctioned the fall of the freedom in italy as well as historically it happened with the advent of the Seigniories against the freedoms of communes.
As a matter of fact many hundred of Italians went exilied in Paris where they asked and obtained political asylum.
It is necessary to precise that France don't allow political asylum for crimes of blood. Consequently the Italians exiled were only political opposers.
There was, Iask, one french exiled. I say one, who asked political asylum in Italy ?
That is an incontrovertible proof of the fall of freedoms in Italy. This is an historical rock that historians, when shall be obliged to make a new writing of our after-war's history, not only they will not be able to remove but they will be obliged to accept it as a basis of their new writing.
The second historical falsehood is "the incombent danger of a communist dictatorship in Italy".
Such a danger didn't exist because the Yalta 's pacts, that divided the world in two spheres of political influence (occidental and sovietic) clearly distincts, would have stopped pacts menat inevitably the third world war which, due to the develpment of nuclear arms, would become a planetary catastrophe. No one was so insane to risk such a catastrophe.
As a matter of fact the Yalta's pacts were respected for about half century guaranteeing to Europe half century of peace. And also this is an historical probative rock that historians, when they shall make a new writing of our after-war history, shall be obliged to put it at the center of their searches.
But, if Yalta guaranteed the non -existence of this danger, why to betray the generation who struggled for democracy, why to betray the democracy itself ?


General election of June 2, 1946 for renewing Constitution assigned to catholic party about 35% of votes with 207 deputies, to socialists about 21% which,added to natural allieds Republicans and of Action party rised to 27% with 147 deputies. Communists had 19% with 104 deputies.
Such a general election estabilished the blocks (catholics against laic-socialists) and numbers (207 against 147) that would have guaranteed government's alternation, i. E. The basis of democracy. An eventual direct election of government's President, as republican Pacciardi proposed, vanished the strong communist presence.
As a matter of fact we can say that this election sanctioned democracy's born in Italy. How, then,it could happen that, during two years only, democracy knocked down by election of April 18,1948 ?
The fall of freedom in Italy couldn't happen without disintegration of socialist party. The matter appeard incredible but it happened in less than two years.
Socialist had half century of history, a father as Turati and a martyr as Matteotti. Socialist brigades of Resistance were called "Matteotti brigades". A laic-socialist moral entered into popular conscience of all Europe. It is consequently paradoxal that this tradition could dissolve in that breaf time. We therefore prefer to stop us to those important facts, incontrovertible facts because happened under eyes of all people.
Although results of June 2, '46, which gave to Nenni the leadership of one of two blocks of democratic alternation, this man begins to preach fusion of socialists with communists and signed a pact of action's unity between both partis.
What is the sense of thi accord if Yalta's accords don't permit to communists to enter into government?
During January '47, in order to stop the fusion's road of Nenni, Saragat realizes a division in the party. Nenni, consequently for election of '48, projects a "Popular Front" between socialists and communists to oppose to catholic party.
Also here we ask what is the sense of this projec due to the fact that "the Front", also ifit would be winner, couldn't, for Yalta, go to poer. Can you think tha Stalin betraied Yalta's pacts and risked a nuclear war for sending Nenni and Togliatti to government of a State (Italy) which was considered less than nothing in the mondial policy?
As a matter of fact Togliatti himself said to be contrary but at last accepted without convinction and with bad will.
Everybody knows that catholics and communists had advantages from this "insanity" of Nenni which was suicidal for socialists.
At this point it is obvious to ask: "what is reason of this insanity?"
The truth is surely a diary that Nenni wrote from '43 to '48. Some copy printed resulted disguished and nobody saw original diary. It is possible that it was destroyed. Consequently we can only to do an hypothesis. Please consider that this is only an hypothesis.
It is possible that Nenni doesn't believe to peace, that Yalta can't guarantee peace and at last war becomes inevitable.
Consequently Nenni made a choice in favour of URSS and imposed Yalta's accords were respected and peace was garded for half century.
At contrary, for this mistake of valuation, in Italy democracy falled.


The atmosphere created by Nenni's fusion wave pushed up catholic propaganda's strategy and communists organizing efforts. To beat Communists danger was for catholics a real obsession.
Roman Church gave to Its followers all instruments at Its disposal: Parish churches, the Catholic Action and the most suitable preachers to cultural level of the people. Up that time known, Father Lombardi was the most representative and was named "God's microphone". Passion, credulity and fanaticism produced an explosive mixture. Result was said "freedom's win".7
The strangest matter is that communist leaders, officially losers, didn't appear mortified. Defeat appeard already foreseen and taken for granted. Their sole concern was to calm disappointment and intemperance of party's members giving responsability to socialist party and, particularly, to Nenni who, against Togliatti's opinion, wanted "Popular Front" and also affirming that revolution's idea, always promised , was not abandoned. At contrary, at first occasion, The party was prepared for the great "spallata" (push of shoulder), word very widespread in the party.
As a matter of fact the occasion arrived some months later. An insane man made an attempt to Togliatti. But Togliatti himself, from his hospital bed, gave clear orders to block by all means every revolutionary attempt. And all communists, als if reluctant, calmed themselves. The truth is that communist party was not the real defeated. Its deputation in Parlament rised very much. By strong organisation, the party monopolised the votes of preference reducing socialist deputation at few dozen of deputies.
The real defeated was, not only Nenni, but socialist party, completely off-side on about possibility of government's alternation due to the fact that also saragt's party was defeated.
It was in this situation tha Italy became a "blocked democracy", so named because it didn't have nothing of democracy. For about forthy years we have had a catholic government and a communist opposition.
A new dictatorship was born, a dictatorship "catto-comunista" (catholic-communist) named "consociativismo", i. e. a kind of associated company for the real powers of the Country. Catholic government had economy giving to communist opposition the culture, that catholics, for education, didn't like.
Consequently, the laic-socialist culture was cut down to powerlessness.
Political power was concentrated in the Parlament completely over the Executive power and over the Magistracy.
Blocked the government and blocked the opposition, the sole preoccupation was to avoid any attempt of real, concrete opposition. And, to this purpose, catholics and communists acted in full accord.
So duty masked, real persecutions began. Victims were socialists of Turati and Matteotti tradition, liberals of "Risorgimento" traditio and communistes themselves, betrayed in their revolution's idea. This people were really hated aither by catholics or by communists. Calumnies ended for becaming ridiculouses. Even De Gaulle was named "fascist"! Obviously Europe laughed.
Final enterprise was the wave of exiled to Paris.


"Italian affair", like this only italian anomaly was named in Europe and in America, has, besides protagonists, some second lead.
CIA, who not always had something to do with american patriotism, was very glad to aid catholic party. CIA needed to keep alive in american public opinion communist danger and "Italian affair" was able to favour such a purpose. It wasn't a case the birth of maccarthism and the witch hunt who followed to it. But this obsession of CIA ended in the absurdity.
Mr Colby, director of CIA's italian department with charge to finance any kind of association clearly anti-communist, wrote in his book printed in Italy to have suspended all payments after having ascertained that half of associations over named were in reality, also if well masked, communists. So it happened that catholics and comminists divided equally between them CIA dollars.
A second aid arrived to catholic party from Mafia who assured to it electoral votes of Sicily. Mafia became also catholics' secular arm who began during "Giuliano affair".
A good friend of Hemingway, the great italian reporter of that time, Tommaso Besozzi, who discovered the intrigue, was taken to the border of society and considered insane. At the end Besozzi killed himself by a paper-bomb, Casini street in Rome.
At this point judgement is at the sale time historical and moral. All protagonists have done interest of thei parties and nobody interest of democracy. This adfirmation is not ingenuous due to Europe began to disparage Italy. A political class who is tricky don't squalify only itself but all its Country and shall bbe damned by History. Italian men forgot the deads of Resistance, CIA forgot the deads of Normandie.
Generation was not betrayed only in Italy.
For concluding a final remark.
When dictatorships fall, sentences are quashed and prisoners are freed. So it happened when fascism in Italy and maccarthism in America fell. In Italy exiles, at least the survivors, are always in Paris. Men dead are forgotten. I regret that European Union in such a case (very and very important for democracy) forget Italy. As a matter of fact, to twenty years of catholic-communist dictatorship. And these men survive as saprophites.
But we are sure that justice shall come from History. And nobody will cry them.
At contrary, as one said during '68, a good laugh shall inter them.